Recent human studies have defined a role for chronically increased serum uric acid (SUA) in a disease axis that includes rare-”orphan” diseases, such as autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease, hereditary hypouricemia, blood pressure, kidney injury, diabetes, and diabetic nephropathy. Stll more recent human studies have shown that decreasing and maintaining lower uric acid levels using Xanthine Oxidase Inhibitors can normalize blood pressure and reverse markers of kidney injury in humans.